|This article is about the captain of the Queen Anne's Revenge. You may be looking for the soundtrack theme, "Blackbeard".|
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|Behind the scenes|
- "If I don't kill a man every now and then, they forget who I am."
- ―Blackbeard to Angelica
Edward Teach, better known as Blackbeard, was a notorious English pirate who operated in the West Indies throughout the 18th century, specifically during the 1750s. The blackest soul and the darkest heart of any pirate who ever lived, striking fear into the bravest of sailors, Blackbeard was a name uttered in terror by all who sail the sea, or any unfortunate enough to encounter him on dry land. Blackbeard's many exploits became the stuff of various myths and legends of pirate lore, including the legend of being killed and beheaded by Royal Marines during the battle of Ocracoke Inlet in 1718.
Originally an Englishman who began his career as one of the many privateers dispensed by King George to raid enemy ships during war, it wasn't until he struck out as a free agent that his true legend was born. He became a renowned pirate, his cognomen derived from his thick black beard and fearsome appearance. His best known vessel was his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, a fearsome frigate festooned with the bones of his victims and spits Greek fire from its bow to incinerate enemy ships or the occasional crew member fallen out of favor. Blackbeard was known to be incredibly cruel to his own crew, more so than the people he held captive, and occasionally murdered men just so they could remember who he was. He resurrected some of the men he killed into obedient zombie officers. Blackbeard also had supernatural powers, having dabbled in the Black Arts and wielded a sword embedded with one of the three sapphires of Triton, which he used to control ships. He would turn every captured vessel into individual ships in bottles and kept each as a prize for his collection. Through unknown circumstances, Blackbeard would have reunited with his beloved daughter Angelica, who served as his first mate aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge.
In his later life, Blackbeard lived under the shadow of a prophesied death in the hands of a one-legged man named Hector Barbossa, predicted by his zombie Quartermaster. His only hope was to find the restorative waters of the fabled Fountain of Youth. Whatever happened beneath the weight of his heartless ambition, Blackbeard would try and reach the Fountain by any means. After Jack Sparrow was forced aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge, Blackbeard embarked in the quest for the Fountain, where he would rendezvous with fate. With Sparrow's help, he and his crew found the Fountain, but the British Royal Navy soldiers led by Barbossa and the Spanish crew led by The Spaniard appeared on scene and started a sanguinary battle in which Blackbeard was fatally wounded by Barbossa and subsequently ended up losing his life due to Jack Sparrow's lies to drink from the wrong Chalice.
Early lifeEdit It was believed that Edward Teach was born in Bristol, born in poverty and raised in squalor in the late 17th century. At an early age, Teach left Bristol aboard a merchantman, jumped ship in the Caribbean, and signed on board as a privateer. He served on an English privateer ship in the Queen Anne's War, sailing from Jamaica and fighting against the Spanish and the French in the Spanish West Indies and along the Spanish Main. When the war ended in 1713, King George decided to withdraw all Letters of Marque, and Teach found himself unemployed.
Blackbeard the PirateEdit
- "Edward Teach! For crimes committed on the high seas, by the authority granted me by His Majesty the King, and with a goodly amount of personal satisfaction, I hereby place you in the custody of the court, and declare you to be my prisoner."
"My trick's out, is that it?"
"Such crimes do include but are not limited to piracy, treason, murder, torture of the most heinous sort, including the brutal theft of one used, twisted, hairy right leg!"
- ―Hector Barbossa and Blackbeard
Like many other former privateers, Teach decided to turn to piracy. He sailed for New Providence where he joined the pirate crew of captain Benjamin Hornigold. Soon, Teach earned Hornigold's trust and became the First Mate on his ship, the Ranger. While under Hornigold’s command, Blackbeard served with several men who would later become pirate captains, including Samuel Bellamy, Paulsgrave Williams, and Olivier Levasseur "La Buse". Blackbeard was exceptionally loyal to Hornigold, remaining in his pirate band after many others defected. He was given control of various prizes in 1716, but didn't receive his first truly independent command in September 1717. This was the Revenge, the sloop of the wayward gentleman pirate Steve Bonnet, who had shown up in Nassau grievously wounded. Blackbeard used her to attack shipping off the Carolinas, Virginia, and Delaware, then took a direct, offshore passage to the outer rim of the eastern Caribbean.
On November 28, 1717, off the coast of Martinique, Teach captured La Concorde de Nantes, a French frigate on a slave trading voyage from Africa. La Concorde was the grandest and most elegant ship that Teach ever captured, so he decided to keep her for himself. Teach converted her into a pirate ship, increased the number of cannons to 38, and renamed her the Queen Anne's Revenge. He soon began to grow a long, thick, black beard, eventually assuming the cognomen: "Blackbeard". Unlike most pirates, who sailed under the traditional black Jolly Roger flag sporting a skull and crossbones, Blackbeard chose a completely unique symbol as his own variation. His flag depicted a skeleton of the devil holding a goblet of wine in one hand and a spear pointing to a bleeding heart in the other, as if he's toasting his victims. Such an intimidating flag was a clear message to his potential victims—they would all die if they don't surrender immediately.
Thus fortified, Blackbeard's gang brought a wave of terror to the eastern Caribbean in late November and early December 1717, burning Guadeloupe town and most of the vessels at St. Kitts. Teach's next great battle was with the large British merchantman, the Great Allen, off the coast of St. Vincent. After a lengthy battle Blackbeard took the ship. The crew of the captured ship was sent to shore in the longboats, but the cargo was plundered, and the ship burned and left to sink. A few days later, near the island of St. Thomas, Blackbeard's small fleet encountered the HMS Seaford, a 22-gun sixth-rate frigate of the British Royal Navy. The pirates raised the British flags, doing their best to look like simple merchant vessels. The British didn't see through the pirate deception, and let the small fleet pass undisturbed. This event would be later exaggerated as a full scale battle between the pirate fleet and one other Royal Navy vessel, the HMS Scarborough. In a repeatedly misinterpreted story the pirates were able to defeat the Scarborough and force her to escape back to Barbados. Though the story wasn't true, it helped to increase Blackbeard's notoriety.
During the next few months, Blackbeard preyed on coastal settlements of the West Indies and the Atlantic coast of North America. He plundered around forty merchant ships, sparing the crews and ships which surrendered immediately, but burning the ships of those who resisted. The Protestant Caesar, a merchant ship from Boston, was burned by Blackbeard because of a few pirates who were hanged there.
Blackbeard's gang spent the winter of 1717-1718 in Central American and made their way into Cuban waters. Blackbeard now had three ships in his fleet, and he preyed on many more, eventually making his way up into the Florida Keys where he captured a Spanish sloop.
Blockade of CharlestonEdit
- "He did attack Charleston and South Carolina and forced the men to give him all sorts of stuff."
- ―David Cordingly
Blackbeard's chief claim to fame was his blockade of Charleston, South Carolina. In approximately late May of 1718, Blackbeard entered the mouth of Charleston harbor with the Queen Anne's Revenge and three lighter vessels. He plundered five merchant freighters attempting to enter or leave the port. No other vessels could transit the harbor for fear of encountering the pirate squadron.
Aboard one of the ships that Blackbeard captured in the harbour mouth was a group of prominent Charleston citizens. Blackbeard held these hostages for ransom, making an unusual demand: a chest of medicines. He sent a deputation ashore to negotiate this ransom. Due partly to his envoys' preference for carousing rather than bargaining, the ransom took some days to be delivered, and Blackbeard evidently came close to murdering his prisoners. Eventually, the medicines were turned over, and Blackbeard released the hostages, sans all their clothing but otherwise unharmed. Blackbeard's whole squadron then escaped northward.
Shortly afterward, Blackbeard ran two of his vessels aground at Topsail Inlet, including the Queen Anne's Revenge. He has been accused by many, including his own crew, of doing this deliberately in order to downsize his crew and increase his own share of the treasure. Deliberate or not, Blackbeard stripped three of the ships of all treasure, beached or marooned most of his crew, and went to Bath, North Carolina, where he finally accepted a Royal Pardon. The governor preformed the marriage ceremony for Mary Ormond, his 14th wife (twelve of his previous wives were believed still alive). However Blackbeard later went back into his old pirate ways. He then went off to Ocracoke Inlet in the last of his four vessels, the sloop Adventure, to enjoy his loot.
Battle of Ocracoke InletEdit
- "And what of you? The mighty Blackbeard. Beheaded, they say. Still, your body swam three times around your ship, then climbed back onboard."
- ―Jack Sparrow to Blackbeard
Blackbeard operated in coastal waters; it was difficult for ships of the line to engage him in battle. As such, two smaller hired sloops were therefore put under the command of Lieutenant Robert Maynard, with instructions from Spotswood to track down and destroy Blackbeard, offering a reward of £100, and smaller sums for the lesser crew members. Maynard sailed from James River on November 11, 1718, in command of thirty men from the HMS Pearl, and twenty-five men and a midshipman of the HMS Ranger. Maynard found the pirates anchored in a North Carolina inlet on the inner side of Ocracoke Island, on the evening of November 21. Maynard and his men decided to wait until the following morning because the tide would be more favorable. Blackbeard's ship, Adventure, had a crew of only nineteen, "Thirteen white and six Negroes", as reported to the Admiralty. On November 22, at dawn, a small boat was sent ahead, was fired upon, and quickly retreated. Blackbeard's superior knowledge of the inlet was of much help, although he and his crew had been drinking in his cabin the night prior. Throughout the night Blackbeard waited for Maynard to make his move. Blackbeard cut his anchor cable and quickly attempted to move towards a narrow channel. Maynard made chase; however his sloops ran aground, and there was a shouted exchange between the two captains.
Maynard's account says, "At our first salutation, he drank Damnation to me and my Men, whom he stil'd Cowardly Puppies, saying, He would neither give nor take Quarter", although many different versions of the dialogue exist. Eventually, Maynard's sloops were able to float freely again, and he began to row towards Blackbeard, since the wind was not strong enough at the time for setting sail. When they came upon Blackbeard's Adventure, they were hit with a devastating broadside attack. Midshipman Hyde, captain of the smaller HMS Ranger, was killed along with six other men. Ten men were also wounded in the surprise attack. The sloop fell astern and was little help in the following action. Maynard continued his pursuit in the HMS Pearl, managing to blast the Adventures rigging, forcing it ashore. Maynard ordered many of his crew into the holds and readied to be boarded. As his ship approached, Blackbeard saw the mostly empty decks, assumed it was safe to board, and did so with ten men. Maynard's men emerged, and the battle began.
According to various legends and lore, Blackbeard was killed in battle. During the fight aboard Lieutenant Maynard's sloop, Blackbeard was attacked with about twenty musket balls and six cutlass wounds. Eventually, the mighty Blackbeard succumbed to his many wounds and fell to the deck, dead. After that, as a show of victory, Maynard took his sword and behead the infamous pirate. Legends about Blackbeard's death immediately sprang up among many pirates and sailors, including the oft-repeated claim that his headless body swam three times around the Adventure before climbing back on board. Blackbeard's head was placed as a trophy on the bowsprit of the ship, while all his remaining crewmembers were all but two executed. Later, Blackbeard's head hung from a pike in Bath Town.
However, Blackbeard was not killed at all. Through unknown circumstances, he was able to escape this grim fate. He returned to the wreck of his old ship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, and had her repaired as his flagship once again. At some point in repairing the Revenge, Blackbeard had a cage put on the back, added a Greek fire-based weapon on the bow, and had the entire ship decorated with the skeletons of his victims as trophies. Blackbeard soon continued in his life of committing various acts of piracy, treason, and murder.
At some point in time, Blackbeard would have obtained the Sword of Triton, a powerful weapon said to be forged in lost Atlantis. Brandishing the sword, Blackbeard commanded unearthly power as it channeled mystical power that brought dead matter to life. Blackbeard used the sword on a number of occasions, including sea battles, increasing the speed of his voyages, and to keep members of his crew in line.
Learning the dark artsEdit
- "Blackbeard. Edward Teach. The pirate all pirates fear. Resurrector of the dead in his spare time."
- ―Jack Sparrow concerning Blackbeard
- "Oh, Latin blood, like her mother!"
- ―Blackbeard on Angelica
Every so often, Blackbeard would send considerable monies to the nuns for Angelica's care. The nuns would tell young Angelica that her pappy was a fine sea captain, away across the ocean on important business, and that he loved her very much. The nuns never asked how Blackbeard came by his riches, because they knew very well where the riches came from. On one occasion, a group of villains attempted to steal the money from the nuns, but the entire group ended up dead and buried out in the vineyard, probably thanks to Blackbeard.
- "Every soul has an appointment with death."
Without the RevengeEdit
- "Blimey, rumors of the Queen Anne's Revenge stalking ships at sea be too much for m'nerves!"
- ―Unknown townsfolk
- "Have I mentioned, sir, what a lovely daughter you have?"
"A fitting last sight for a doomed soul."
- ―Jack Sparrow and Blackbeard
Through unknown circumstances, Blackbeard would be reunited with his beloved daughter, Angelica. He took her aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge, where they had a formidable partnership. Blackbeard had been unbeatable since Angelica joined forces with him and became a notable apprentice. He soon trusted her well enough to give her the rank of first mate aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge. As second-in-command of his infamous vessel, Angelica proved to be a well-trusted ally to Blackbeard, though they have different views on punishment. Although Blackbeard had committed numerous wrongdoings and misdeeds, Angelica wanted him to become a better man and prevent his eternal soul from damnation and descending into darkness.
Prior to this, at some point after the end of the War Against Piracy, Blackbeard encountered the Black Pearl, a pirate ship in command of Captain Hector Barbossa. Using his sword, Blackbeard brought the rigging of the Black Pearl to life, and used it against Barbossa's crew, who were eventually defeated, though Barbossa managed to escape with the cost of cutting off his own right leg. Blackbeard managed to capture the Black Pearl and added it to his collection of ships in bottles. During one of Blackbeard's later raids on a remote island in the Caribbean, his crew captured a young missionary named Philip Swift in the process. Before Blackbeard had a chance to kill Philip, Angelica stopped him, as she believed that he may be a key to Blackbeard's redemption. Blackbeard allowed the missionary to live but had him lashed onto the mast of the Queen Anne's Revenge.
Quest for the Fountain of YouthEdit
- "If I do not make it to the Fountain in time...neither will you."
- ―Blackbeard to Jack Sparrow
Before their search for the Fountain of Youth could continue further, Blackbeard and Angelica had to find Captain Jack Sparrow, someone whom they have heard had been to the Fountain. And so Angelica set out to find Jack and bring him aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge. Accompanied by the Quartermaster, Angelica went to London to put an elaborate charade that ensured the capture of Jack Sparrow into effect. With the help of Scrum, Angelica, disguised as Jack himself, began to recruit crewmen at a local pub called the Captain's Daughter. Attracted by the rumors of "Jack Sparrow recruiting a crew", Jack Sparrow himself went to the Captain's Daughter, where he found Angelica impersonating him. Ultimately, after a duel with Angelica, which ended with an escape from King George's royal guards, Jack was knocked out cold with a voodoo dart by the Quartermaster. Jack was then shanghaied aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge, where Blackbeard's quest for the Fountain continued on.
Mutiny on the Queen Anne's RevengeEdit
- "Gentlemen...I be placed in a bewilderment. There I were, resting. And upon a sudden, I hear an ungodly row on deck. Sailors abandon their posts, without orders, without leave. Men before the mast, taking the ship for themselves. What be that, First Mate?"
"Aye. Mutiny. And what fate befalls mutineers? Now we know the answer to that, do we not? Mutineers...Hang!"
- ―Blackbeard and Angelica
Throughout the first several days on the voyage, at which time Jack Sparrow was out cold from the effects of the voodoo dart or working as a deckhand, Blackbeard stayed in his cabin and never came out. Because of his predicament of being trapped aboard Blackbeard's ship, filled with zombies and sailing to a place of certain death, Jack decided to rally some of the human crewmen in a mutiny. The following night in the gun deck aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge, Jack persuaded the crewmen to join the mutiny by telling them the danger of their destination, which the crew hadn't been informed of, towards finding the Fountain of Youth. The mutiny began well for Jack and his co-conspirators, as they almost took control of the ship with the defeat of Angelica and the zombie officers. However, the doors right behind Jack Sparrow opened and every one of the mutineers stared in abject terror as they saw the looming figure of Edward Teach, better known as the notorious Blackbeard.
- "Captain, I wish to report a mutiny! I can name fingers and point names."
"No need, Mr. Sparrow. They are sheep. You, their shepherd."
- ―Jack Sparrow and Blackbeard
Silhouetted against the moonlight, the nightmare of a man came out of his cabin, surrounded by smoke from fuses twined into his black beard. One hand grasped a bottle of whisky. Jack turned away as Blackbeard raised the whisky bottle, drinking it in one long swallow before tossing the bottle away. Speaking to his crew, Blackbeard gripped the jewelled hilt of his sword, at the same time, elsewhere on deck, ropes move on their own accord. Using the powers of his sword, Blackbeard brought the rigging of his ship alive to single-handedly quelled the mutiny with relative ease. Following the mutiny, Blackbeard attempted to kill Jack but was interrupted by young missionary Philip Swift. After an argument between the two if he was afraid or just plain bad, Blackbeard once again intended to shoot Philip, but was again stopped by Angelica. Blackbeard seemed touched that his daughter would go to such lengths to save him. Angelica told him that every soul could be saved, with Philip agreeing to the comment. Because of the faith shown from his daughter, he put away his pistol.
When Blackbeard found out from Gunner that the Cook, who was to stood watch that night, was part of the mutiny, he ordered him to go into the longboat. Because of their laws concerning mutiny, Blackbeard had the Queen Anne's Revenge sail to a position where he could unleash Greek fire upon the Cook as an example to the other crewmen. Angelica desperately pleaded for him to not kill the Cook. Blackbeard ignored her plea, saying that he gave him the chance not afforded by all, and ordered his men to fire the cannons. The crew watch as the Cook was blasted by Greek fire as he was rowing away from the Revenge. As the Cook was burned, Blackbeard told Philip that he felt closest to his Maker when he sees suffering, pain and anguish, saying that is when the true design of the world is revealed. Philip tried to convince Blackbeard otherwise and that there was still hope, but Blackbeard ignored him as he again gave the order to fire. The crew of the Revenge watch as the Cook was burned to death.
Afterwards, the Quartermaster took Jack Sparrow to Blackbeard's cabin for a talk, where Blackbeard tried to convince Jack to lead him to the Fountain of Youth. After Sparrow refused, Blackbeard started making a voodoo doll of Jack. As he did, Jack tried to warn Blackbeard of Angelica, saying that she's not his daughter. Though Blackbeard didn't believe him, Jack tried to tell him that she was consummate of the art of deception as well as being pure evil. Angelica entered the cabin as Blackbeard started to stab the finished Jack voodoo doll with a dagger. Sparrow immediately felt heavy pain in his chest and, after Blackbeard put the doll over the fire from a candle, instantly agreed to take a look at the charts.
One of the items which Blackbeard required for the Profane Ritual at the Fountain was a mermaid's tear, so the Queen Anne's Revenge achored at Whitecap Bay, a mermaid nesting place on a mysterious island. Blackbeard approached the rail, gazing with satisfaction as he saw a remote lighthouse on a distant, rocky shoreline. Several longboats rowed in with the landing party of a dozen pirates, with Blackbeard, Angelica and Jack Sparrow among them. Some of Blackbeard's men deployed the fishing nets in the shallow water as traps for the mermaids, while Blackbeard himself joined the others who made their way to the top of the old lighthouse, where one of his men, Salaman, got it in working condition in order to attract mermaids.
Blackbeard had hatched a plan to catch a mermaid, but he would not do the fishing himself. He handpicked members of his crew for the dangerous job; the ones he could do without. A longboat full of members of Blackbeard's crew were sent on a mission, as bait to lure a mermaid for her tears. Legend has it that man-made light and song attract the sirens of the sea, so the boat is lit by the beam of the lighthouse and Scrum sings a swaying sea shanty. The song soon attracted a group of mermaids, who soon attacked the boats and their crews. The mermaid hunt turned into a massive slaughter, where mermaids attempted to kill all of the men in the boats. Blackbeard then used the powers of his sword to summon the Revenge, which launched heavy Greek fire cannons on the mermaids, forcing them to swim closer to shore.
Using the long seaweed as whips, the mermaids began to attack the onshore party, pulling them into the sea. As some of the crewmen tried to escape inland, Blackbeard personally shot them, calling them cowards and forcing the rest to stay in the water. Jack Sparrow saw that the mermaids must be driven off, and he climbed to the top of the lighthouse. He burned the whale oil in the lighthouse, creating a big explosion which scared the mermaids and forced them to retreat to the depths.
Though it looked that Blackbeard's mermaid hunt was a failure, with all mermaids on the shore dead, Philip Swift managed to capture one mermaid, stabbing the end of her tail with his cutlass. Blackbeard, whose hatred toward the young missionary was well known, now personally praised him for capturing the creature.
Search through the junglesEdit
After relocating the Queen Anne's Revenge to a protected cove of the island, Blackbeard and his men came inland to continue their quest. They needed to find the Santiago, a ship captained by Ponce de León which was stranded somewhere on the island. The two Chalices of Cartagena, another important item needed for the ritual, were hidden aboard the ship, and Blackbeard had to find them.
Jack Sparrow guided them with the help of his mystical compass, but the crew soon discovered an insurmountable obstacle; a broken bridge. Blackbeard decided that one of them will cross the river and retrieve the Chalices, while the rest of the crew will continue towards the Fountain. Blackbeard took Jack's compass and ordered him to jump into the river. When Jack refused to jump from the high cliff, Blackbeard pulled out his pistol and threatened to kill Angelica. Though Sparrow didn't believe that he would kill his own daughter, Blackbeard gave his pistol to the Quartermaster who had placed it with six more pistols, with only two of them being loaded, but not knowing which.
Forcing Jack to choose one of them, Blackbeard took the pistol from him and pointed it into Angelica, pulling the trigger. The pistol wasn't loaded, but Blackbeard forced Jack to choose again. When Jack fired loaded pistol into air, he knew that Blackbeard is serious, and he asked the Quartermaster about the possibility of survival if he jumps into the river. The Quartermaster took Jack's voodoo doll, throwing it into the river.
Jack screamed, but the Quartermaster assured him that he would survive the jump. When Angelica attempted to jump, Jack jumped before her, falling into the river, and appeared on the surface a moment later. Angelica complimented Blackbeard's method, saying that he knew which pistols were loaded. Blackbeard assured her that he did know and walked away. As Jack proceeded to the Santiago, Blackbeard continued his search for the Fountain.
Obtaining Syrena's TearEdit
- "You will walk."
"Walk or die."
- ―Blackbeard and Syrena
During the journey, the captured mermaid was carried in a glass tank filled with sea water. But when one of his zombie crewmen, Yeoman, accidentally tripped, the tank fell to the ground, breaking. The mermaid fell to the ground, and before the shocked eyes of the pirates, her tail transformed into a pair of human legs. Philip Swift quickly gave her his shirt to cover her nudity. Blackbeard, not wanting to wait, told her to walk, but although she tried, her new legs weren't able to stand up. After Blackbeard threatened her, Philip Swift decided to carry her for the rest of the journey. When Blackbeard found the Jungle Pools and ordered his men to bring the mermaid, referring to her as the "creature", Philip demanded she'd be called Syrena.
Blackbeard and his crew arrived to the pools where mermaids had previously been tied up and left to die, harvested for their mermaid tears. Syrena was put into one of the pools while Blackbeard tried to force her to cry by showing the remains of her fellow mermaids and telling her of how they were left to die a slow, painful death. However, Syrena would not yield. So Blackbeard, upon learning that she and Philip fancy each other, decided to use Philip. Realizing that Syrena would remain strong, Blackbeard ordered the Quartermaster to kill Philip, although in reality he only sedated him with a dart. Syrena was seemingly left to die while Philip's body was dumped nearby. Blackbeard and his crew waited until Philip regained consciousness and managed to make Syrena cry with a tear of joy when they were reunited. After getting Syrena's tear in a vial, Blackbeard ordered Syrena to be secured and left at the pools to die, as the mermaids before her.
Finding the FountainEdit
- "Aha! Dead end!"
- ―Jack Sparrow and Blackbeard
With Angelica in the lead, Blackbeard and his crew carried on with their search through the jungles, until they met up with Jack Sparrow. Sparrow was successful in finding the Chalices, which were tied up to a wild boar that was held down by Joshamee Gibbs. However, Jack had conditions to be made before he could hand them over. He wanted Angelica unharmed, the return of his compass, and for Gibbs to be allowed to go free. Annoyed by Jack's blabbering, Blackbeard accepted and took the Chalices from Gibbs, as they continued on their journey.
After much searching through the jungles, Jack found the cave entrance to the Fountain of Youth. The Quartermaster led Blackbeard and the rest of the crew as they went down a steep incline to the cavern. Going much deeper inside the blue cave, the Quartermaster waved the torch across a wall, which Jack says it's a dead end. Upon seeing the supposed end of the quest and Jack's unsuccessful attempt to gain entrance into the Fountain by hitting the two Chalices against one another, that Blackbeard and his crew knew that Jack had never been to the Fountain. Angered by this revelation, Blackbeard ordered the Quartermaster to kill Jack. The Quartermaster fired his pistol but Jack shielded himself with the Chalices, ricocheting the bullets off them. Blackbeard aimed his own pistol at Sparrow, who started to read the words inscribed on the Chalices, "Aqua de Vida". Suddenly, Blackbeard and his crew heard water coming from the cave, gradually rising up along the walls, collecting into a pool above their heads. Blackbeard watched as Jack climbed onto Scrum's shoulders and poked the pool, before being sucked into it.
Blackbeard and the rest of the crew followed Jack through the pool, and ended up in the Fountain of Youth. As Blackbeard looked around the Fountain's chamber, Jack Sparrow walked further to the Fountain itself, a natural stone archway-like basin with water dripping through. Blackbeard stopped Jack, as he went up to the central stone reaching to touch the water, stating that he'll be the first to drink from it. However, Angelica warned Blackbeard of an unwanted visitor appearing out of the mist. To his dismay, Blackbeard was confronted by the one-legged man who was destined to kill him—Hector Barbossa.
One Last FightEdit
- "Aye. That be the cold breath of fate I feel down my nape. But, I'll have one last fight, by God. Kill them all!"
- ―Blackbeard after being challenged by Hector Barbossa
Jack had led Barbossa, a privateer in King George's court, and his crew of the HMS Providence to the Fountain to confront Blackbeard. Barbossa declared Blackbeard as his prisoner, at which Blackbeard scoffed. Stating the crimes he had committed, including the loss of his leg, Barbossa pulled out his sword. Blackbeard questioned Barbossa's challenge as he pulled his sword out. Feeling that fate had caught up to him, with his prophesied death coming true, Blackbeard was determined to not go down without a fight. He ordered his crew to attack Barbossa's men. After Jack briefly stopped the fight between the two parties, convincing everyone to let just the captains fight each other, the battle between the crews began as the two captains engage in a fierce duel.
In their deadlock battle, Blackbeard fought Barbossa, who blocked the attacks with his sword and crutch, while evading Barbossa's own attacks. They continued slashing at each other until one of Barbossa's men, Gillette, got in the way and was fatally stabbed by Blackbeard, briefly interrupting the duel. In one of Barbossa's attacks with his crutch, Blackbeard grabbed it and chopped it in half, leaving Barbossa slightly unbalanced. Blackbeard laughed at the idea that there could have been more of a fight, to which Barbossa retaliated by poking Blackbeard in the face with the remaining half of his crutch, enraging Blackbeard and causing him to fight harder. Despite being at a disadvantage, Barbossa was still able to fight, until Blackbeard tripped the privateer to the ground. To Blackbeard's frustration, Barbossa had a smile on his face, which infuriated him as he was about to finish him off. But Blackbeard wouldn't be given that chance, as Barbossa pointed out to him, as he gazed upon more unwanted visitors.
- "I will not have that smile on your face as I strike you down!"
"Take a gander, Edward Teach."
- ―Blackbeard and Hector Barbossa
The Spaniard and his men appeared out of the fog, slowly stopping the fight at the Fountain. Blackbeard stared in amazement as more Spanish soldiers appeared. Declaring that the Fountain was to be destroyed, the Spaniard smashed the two Chalices and dropped them in a deep pool nearby. Blackbeard watched as the Spanish prepared to destroy the Fountain.
- "You are a fool. You seek in this place what only faith can provide."
"Faith. In faith there is light enough to see, but darkness enough to blind."
- ―The Spaniard and Blackbeard
- "I'm not such the fool to take on Blackbeard without a little, venomous advantage."
- ―Hector Barbossa
The Spanish continued destroying the temple around the Fountain. Barbossa walked to pick up Blackbeard's sword, claiming it along with his ship and crew for payment of his lost leg. Despite the destruction of the Fountain of Youth, Jack Sparrow managed to retrieve the Chalices—with help from Syrena—and was able to get the last few drops from the Fountain and added the mermaid's tear into one of the Chalices. Jack presented both Chalices to Blackbeard and Angelica, saying that one of them must sacrifice themselves.
Angelica offered the Chalice with the tear to Blackbeard, while Jack tried to convince him to save his daughter by letting her drink the cup with the tear. Blackbeard, however, just took the Chalice with the tear and drank from it, telling Angelica to save him to Jack's shock. Though saddened by what her own father did, Angelica drank the other Chalice despite Jack's opinion and admitted her love for him. However, as he left them, Jack turned around and revealed that he may have mixed up the Chalices. In fact, Angelica had drunk from the Chalice with the tear while Blackbeard had drunk from the Chalice with normal water.
Having lost his chance at eternal life, Blackbeard shouted insults to Sparrow and tried to attack him, but staggered, being stuck standing in the same spot. Upon the healing of Angelica's wound, Angelica shouted at Sparrow for sealing her father's fate, but Jack mused that Blackbeard had saved her so perhaps his soul had been redeemed. The flowing waters of the Fountain then rushed towards Blackbeard, completely surrounding and entwining him, rotting away his body and giving all the years he could have lived to his beloved daughter. Angelica stared in horror as his skin dissolved, leaving nothing but bones, nothing was left but a standing skeleton. However, Blackbeard's will was strong enough for one last, sad, reach for Angelica until his bones loosen and fell. The Fountain's waters cleared as Blackbeard's lifeless skeleton joined the other victims of previous expeditions, a few bones separating and clattering away, dead.
Personality and traitsEdit
- "You know when I feel closest to our Maker? When I see suffering, pain, and anguish. That's when the true design of this world is revealed."
- ―Blackbeard to Philip Swift
With a ravaged visage and a murderous glint in his cold eyes, Edward Teach was one of the most feared pirates of all. Known far and wide as Blackbeard, a name which he got from his distinctive thick, dark beard, he was a ruthless killer and master of the dark arts. A dark philosophy inspired Blackbeard's diabolical actions; he felt closest to his Maker when he saw pain and suffering, and believed misery lifts the veil from reality, showing life as it truly was. He had little, if any, sense of morality and ultimately cared for no one except himself. Even Philip Swift, a young missionary who believed in the goodness of all, believed that Blackbeard was entirely evil and didn't think that he could be redeemed. Blackbeard was actually aware that he was a bad man, to a point of admitting and accepting it as a plain and simple fact, and made no effort to make himself into a better person.
Of all the sea-rovers who ever hoisted the black colors, Blackbeard was the most notorious. Ruthless, cunning, and savage to his subordinates, he was nonetheless an able and even charismatic leader. An Englishman who was born Edward Teach, he began his career of plunder as one of the many privateers dispensed by King George to raid enemy ships during war. It wasn't until he struck out as a free agent that his true legend was born. Blackbeard and his zombie crew had become known for raising havoc throughout the Caribbean. Blackbeard also wielded a mystical weapon—the Sword of Triton—which he used to control his ship, the Queen Anne's Revenge. His crew of ghastly zombies obey his every command, and they don't fear death because they're already dead.
Legendary for his wicked and cruel personality, Edward Teach understood the value of appearances; better to strike fear into the heart of one's enemies, than rely on bluster alone. He was a renowned pirate, his cognomen derived from his thick black beard and the fearsome appearance he wished to present to his enemies. Blackbeard gained the notoriety with the epithet "the pirate all pirates fear" in his time of sailing the seven seas. An example of how feared he was, the simple revelation of the man looming over them as Edward Teach himself struck such terror in Jack Sparrow's crew of mutineers that they gave up all resistance and thus Jack's mutiny, which had been on the verge of total success, ended in utter failure.
Another example would Blackbeard being in charge of the massive mermaid hunt, slaughter, and mermaid capture. Blackbeard hatched a plan to catch a mermaid, but would not do the fishing himself, having sent out a boatload of sailors as 'bait' and force them to sing to attract the mermaids to their doom. He had handpicked members of his crew for the dangerous job; the ones he can do without. And though some of his crewmen tried to retreat to land, Blackbeard fired his pistol, saying "There be no refuge on land," in order to force his men to go back in the water to capture a mermaid.
It was said that Blackbeard was possessed of a tattered soul, lost to the forces of darkness. A glimpse into his private chamber aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge, where he often practiced his sinister sorcery, confirmed that suspicion. During his life, Blackbeard liked to torture people, whether they were prisoners or members of his own crew. There was a huge cage hanging outside the back of the Queen Anne's Revenge above a huge lantern on which Blackbeard threw his victims, burning them while they were still alive. He would keep the skeletons of his victims as trophies, displaying them in an unusual way aboard the Revenge. Blackbeard would also punish prisoners or crew members, like with the Cook, by forcing them to row out into the sea where he would unleash the Revenges Greek fire cannons. Another example of his sadistic nature was when he left Syrena to die a slow and painful death at the Jungle Pools, even though he had already obtained the mermaid's tear he needed from her. In order for Blackbeard to escape his own inevitable death, predicted by the zombie quartermaster, he had to steal fresh years at the Fountain of Youth. He would have taken the years of any one of his crewmen, including his own daughter Angelica, who would do anything to save his life.
- "Angelica. My beloved daughter, the one true good thing I have done in this life and you claim to be the one who corrupted her?"
"Sir. What she is, is pure evil."
- ―Blackbeard and Jack Sparrow
Known for his total lack of compassion, Blackbeard showed a rare concern for the fate of his beloved daughter Angelica, who appeared to be the only person Blackbeard had any affection for. As his daughter, Angelica loved her father despite his morally corrupt lifestyle. Blackbeard himself even claimed to Jack Sparrow that he saw her as the only good thing he had done in his life, and boldly admitting later that he would give his soul to save her. Nonetheless, Blackbeard still cared more about himself than he did about her, and was ready to sacrifice her to achieve his own longevity. Despite the fact that Jack noted Blackbeard's possible redemption for saving Angelica, which was done by Jack's trickery, Blackbeard had intended to save his own life.
- "Twice in one day, I find myself in a bewilderment."
"You are not bewildered, you are afraid. You dare not walk the path of righteousness, the way of the light."
"No, sir, the truth of it be much simpler than all that. I'm a bad man."
- ―Blackbeard and Philip Swift
During the quest for the Fountain of Youth, Blackbeard showed no respect for mermaids and, despite their ability to talk, he didn't think they were sentient beings. He taunted Syrena about the deaths of other mermaids at the Jungle Pools and sneered when Philip Swift attempted to defend her. He also appeared to feel some disdain for Philip and Syrena's feelings for each other and used their feelings to force Syrena to shed a tear. Blackbeard was manipulative, faking Philip's murder in an attempt to get Syrena to cry but, knowing that Philip would return for her, he hoped that Syrena would cry with joy instead of sorrow. This plan succeeded and Blackbeard obtained Syrena's tear.
Like most pirates, Blackbeard was an alcoholic, drinking either rum or whiskey. According to legend, Blackbeard would mix his rum in gunpowder and light it on fire before he drank it. He would sometimes drink it while having hemp and lighted matches woven into his enormous black beard to scare his crewmen.
Dressed in leather as black as his own legendary deeds, Blackbeard struck utter terror into lesser men with his mere presence. All that aggression, mixed with his passion for dark magic, had resulted in a haggard face and dark-rimmed eyes. Blackbeard often fought, or simply showed himself, wearing a big feathered tricorn and having multiple knives, and pistols at his disposal. He also had hemp and lighted matches woven into his enormous black beard and slow-burning fuses under his hat, so that he would go into battle with smoke billowing around his head. Accounts of people who saw him fighting say that they thought he "looked like the devil" with his fearsome face and the black smoke cloud around his head. This image, which he cultivated, has made him the premier image of the seafaring pirate.
Blackbeard was one of the few pirate captains who had more than one pirate flag. At the beginning of his pirate career, he used the typical black flag sporting the skull and crossbones. He later used a flag designed to intimidate his enemies, one that depicted a great horned skeleton of the devil holding a goblet of wine in one hand and a spear pointing to a bleeding heart in the other, as if he's toasting his victims. As a former privateer of Great Britain, he would often fly the flag of England from one of the masts. At some point prior to the voyage to the Fountain of Youth, Blackbeard flew a new variation, featuring a skull with flames that revealed his passion for forbidden dark magic.
Equipment and skillsEdit
Blackbeard's formidable appearance was probably his best weapon, but he was always armed with his sword and at least one flintlock pistol. He operated in the West Indies as a clever strategist who employs fear as his weapon, and was ruthless if driven to use force. In his early pirating days, Blackbeard was also known to have used knives, as well as hand grenades. Blackbeard was also a Brujos, having studied Voodoo to his own ends; he could resurrect those he had killed into zombie officers, fashion voodoo dolls to bend people to his will, and magicking an armada of conquered vessels into ships in bottles. His most prominent weapon was the Sword of Triton, a weapon said to be forged in lost Atlantis and imbedded with one of the three sapphires of Triton. Brandishing the Sword of Triton, Blackbeard commanded unearthly power to rule the ship, controlling the vessel to do his indomitable will.
Like most pirates, Blackbeard was a skilled swordsman, gaining his fighting skills during the long years of fighting at sea, first as a privateer, and later as a pirate. Combining his skills with his legendary cruelty, Blackbeard was a deadly opponent to any man who were brave enough to challenge him. The only known person who had survived a duel with Blackbeard was Hector Barbossa.
He was also known as the inventor of a new type of grenades; he filled empty bottles with gunpowder, scatter and small pieces of iron or lead. Such grenades were very useful for pirates as they killed and wounded enemy crewmembers without damaging the ship. Three grenades were thrown on Maynard's men during Blackbeard's battle of Ocracoke Inlet.
Behind the scenesEdit
- "You've ruined us all."
- ―Blackbeard to Capitaine Chevalle
- Blackbeard was portrayed by English actor Ian McShane in On Stranger Tides. McShane was previously considered to play Davy Jones in Dead Man's Chest and in At World's End, but lost out to Bill Nighy. McShane subsequently reprised his role in two Disney Parks attractions: the 2011 revamp of Pirates of the Caribbean and the A Pirate's Adventure: Treasures of the Seven Seas.
- Before Ian McShane was cast as Blackbeard for On Stranger Tides, there were some actors that were considered for the role, particularly Javier Bardem (who later went to play Armando Salazar in Dead Men Tell No Tales) and Benicio del Toro.
- Mark "Crash" McCreery's design of Davy Jones and his tentacle beard was inspired by Blackbeard.
- Because of his appearance in On Stranger Tides, Blackbeard was the first historical pirate that appears in the Pirates of the Caribbean film series.
- In real-world history, Blackbeard was killed at Ocracoke Inlet in 1718. Also, his body had been shot no less than 5 times and around 20 severe cuts around his body. His career as a pirate was made famous by the book, A General History of the robberies & murders of the most notorious Pyrates, which contained detailed accounts of his actions at sea. There is also no record of Blackbeard doing anything relating to the supernatural.
- Marc Davis originally intended to put historical pirates like Blackbeard, Sir Henry Morgan, Anne Bonny, and Captain Kidd into the Pirates of the Caribbean ride but he eventually decided to "find ways to add something that people could get a laugh out of" instead. However, the Pirate Captain from the attraction was based on Blackbeard. In 2006, that character was replaced by Hector Barbossa. In 2011, to coincide with the release of On Stranger Tides, Blackbeard was added to the ride as a temporary replacement of Davy Jones, portrayed by Bill Nighy, who appeared in a ghostly waterfall projection in the grotto scenes. In later refurbishments in 2011 to 2012, projections of Blackbeard and Davy Jones were used alternatively through the ride at Disneyland; Blackbeard only appeared in Walt Disney World, while Davy Jones appeared in Tokyo Disneyland. As of November 2013, only Davy Jones can be seen in the Disneyland version of the ride.
- The original name of Treasure Island/Discovery Island from the Walt Disney World Resort was Blackbeard's Island.
- In non-canonical Disney Adventures comic The Buccaneer's Heart!, Blackbeard's spirit was imprisoned in the Buccaneer's Heart, and was ultimately freed when Will Turner smashed the object. As Blackbeard appears alive and well in On Stranger Tides, the comic's events aren't canonical with the Pirates of the Caribbean universe.
- In the first screenplay draft of At World's End, Blackbeard was one of the pirates present at the Brethren Court. He attempted to kill Capitaine Chevalle for losing his piece of eight, the Magellan's ring, to Lord Cutler Beckett, in the game of cards years earlier in the South China Seas. However, his inclusion was scrapped and the character ended up making his appearance in On Stranger Tides.
- One of the Below Deck: An Interactive History Of Pirates featurettes, found on the The Curse of the Black Pearl DVD/Blu-Ray edition, is about Blackbeard.
- The characters Jacoby and Black Smoke James appear to be based on Blackbeard; in the DVD commentary of The Curse of the Black Pearl, Keira Knightley called Jacoby Blackbeard.
- Eduardo Villanueva uses the same flag as the one usually attributed to Blackbeard. Captain Edward Teague uses a similar design.
- Prior to the release of At World's End many fans believed that Blackbeard would be present at the Brethren Court. This is probably because Villanueva's flag, which was seen in the trailer, is similar to the one attributed to Blackbeard.
- The names "Edward Teague" and "Eduardo Villanueva" seem to be a tribute to Edward Teach. The name "Black Pearl" might be a tribute to the HMS Pearl.
- A drawing of Blackbeard can be seen very briefly on the wall of Henry Turner's room in the opening of Dead Men Tell No Tales.
- Blackbeard appears in the graphic novel Pirates of the Caribbean: Six Sea Shanties. But, since that book was canceled, it is unknown if his appearance in the book is canon or not.
- A BBC miniseries about Blackbeard was entitled Blackbeard: The Real Pirate Of The Caribbean as a tribute to Pirates of the Caribbean.
- Some fans believed that the 1968 Disney movie Blackbeard's Ghost features the same ghost as The Buccaneer's Heart! making the latter some kind of prequel to this movie. This speculation was proven false by the release of Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides.
- Blackbeard appeared in Tim Powers' novel On Stranger Tides. In the novel, his real name is Johnny Con. Most of Blackbeard's characteristics, such as being a Brujos, was integrated into the fourth Pirates movie.
- A pirate similar to Blackbeard appears on the cover of Great Pirate Music: Music Inspired By Pirates of the Caribbean.
- In Rick Riordan's fantasy novel, The Sea of Monsters, Blackbeard makes a cameo, where he is revealed to be a son of Ares (Greek god of war). The protagonists then proceed to steal the Queen Anne's Revenge which is used throughout the book.
- In Toby Tate's novel Diablero, Blackbeard is a pirate possessed by a voodoo demon. After Blackbeard's death in 1718, the demon resurrects his headless corpse 300 years later so he could open the gates of Hell.
- In an interesting parallel to real world history, Blackbeard yells "No Quarter!" in On Stranger Tides just before engaging Barbossa in a sword duel and being killed as a result. Historically it is known Blackbeard threatened Robert Maynard with a similar statement before engaging in the battle that cost him his life as well.
- Pirates of the Caribbean: Six Sea Shanties
- Pirates of the Caribbean Online (Mentioned only)
- Pirates of the Caribbean: Tides of War (Mentioned only)
- Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides (First appearance)
- The Brightest Star in the North: The Adventures of Carina Smyth (Mentioned only)
- Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales (Mentioned only)
- Pirates of the Caribbean (ride) (post-2011 revamp)
- A Pirate's Adventure: Treasures of the Seven Seas
- LEGO Pirates of the Caribbean: The Video Game
- The Buccaneer's Heart! (as ghost)
- Pirates of the Caribbean: Master of the Seas Strategy Game
- Pirates of the Caribbean: Gods and Ghosts M
- Walt Disney's Pirates of the Caribbean: The Story of the Robust Adventure in Disneyland and Walt Disney World
- Below Deck: An Interactive History Of Pirates
- Bring Me That Horizon: The Making of Pirates of the Caribbean
- Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides
- Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides: The Visual Guide
- The Captain Jack Sparrow Handbook
- Blackbeard on Wikipedia
- Blackbeard at Pirates of the Caribbean, in fact and fiction
- Biography of Blackbeard at The Way of the Pirates
- Blackbeard's last stand at The Way of the Pirates
Notes and referencesEdit
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 The Captain Jack Sparrow Handbook, p30.
- ↑ Estimation based on actor Ian McShane's height.
- ↑ Estimation based on Ian McShane's age during the filming of Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides, and the fact that On Stranger Tides takes place in 1750.
- ↑ 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 4.26 4.27 4.28 4.29 4.30 4.31 4.32 4.33 Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides
- ↑ 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 Walt Disney's Pirates of the Caribbean: The Story of the Robust Adventure in Disneyland and Walt Disney World, p13.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides: The Visual Guide, p28-29: "Blackbeard"
- ↑ Referred to as this by Jack Sparrow in Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides
- ↑ Wanted posters of Treasure Cove
- ↑ 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 A General History of the Pyrates, Chapter 3: "Of Captain Teach, alias Black-beard."
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Though it wasn't directly mentioned, Adventure was the ship that Blackbeard was known to have sailed during the Battle of Ocracoke Inlet, which was indirectly mentioned in Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Below Deck: An Interactive History Of Pirates
- ↑ He was called "Edward Teach" in On Stranger Tides as well as in real-world history.
- ↑ "The real Blackbeard captured over 20 ships, so I pitched the idea that he kept the one that was the most elegant and grandest." - John Myhre
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides (junior novelization), p.48
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Did You Know? ...On Stranger Tides edition: Grog Blog
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 POTC4 Presskit
- ↑ "Blackbeard's history is definitely a legend, and like most legends, may or may not have a basis in fact." - Terry Rossio
- ↑ Terry Rossio's opinion on Blackbeard and Voodoo.
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides: The Visual Guide, p30-31: "Queen Anne's Revenge"
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 Critical analysis - SCRIPTS Message Board - Wordplayer.com
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides: The Visual Guide, p38-39: "Blackbeard's Cabin"
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Angelica's backstory from Disney Second Screen
- ↑ Terry Rossio's opinion on Blackbeard and Angelica.
- ↑ Bottled ships
- ↑ Pirates of the Caribbean: Six Sea Shanties
- ↑ Looking Back Over The Stern
- ↑ Pirates of the Caribbean Online
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 28.2 Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides: The Visual Guide, p42-43: "Angelica and Blackbeard"
- ↑ Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides: The Visual Guide, p33.
- ↑ Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides: The Visual Guide, p.54-55: "Whitecap Bay"
- ↑ Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides: The Visual Guide, p.54-55: "Whitecap Bay"
- ↑ Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides: The Visual Guide, p40-41: "Dark Magic"
- ↑ Bring Me That Horizon: The Making of Pirates of the Caribbean, p25.
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 The Queen Anne's Revenge as shown in A General History of the Pyrates.
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 Concept art of the Queen Anne's Revenge.
- ↑ Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides: The Visual Guide, p.48-49: "Naval Files"
- ↑ Jan Rogozinski, Pirates! Brigands, Buccaneers, and Privateers in Fact, Fiction, and Legend 
- ↑ 'Pirates 2' DVD Unlocks Davy Jones - Zap2it
- ↑ PIRATES OF THE CARIBBEAN - Miles Teves at Miles Teves Design Studio
- ↑ Masters of Design - Crash McCreery
- ↑ Disney Pirates: The Definitive Collector's Anthology, p140.
- ↑ Pirates of the Caribbean: From the Magic Kingdom to the Movies, p91
- ↑ Take a Voyage Around the World to Celebrate the 45th Anniversary of Pirates of the Caribbean at Disneyland Park
- ↑ Pirates Of The Caribbean November 2013 Disneyland USA - YouTube
- ↑ Disney's own Treasure Island
- ↑ Several real-life including John Quelch, Walter Kennedy and Timothy Wilson also used similar flags.
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